Quantum Models of Cognition and Decision by Jerome R. Busemeyer (PDF)


Ebook Info

  • Published: 2014
  • Number of pages: 424 pages
  • Format: PDF
  • File Size: 4.82 MB
  • Authors: Jerome R. Busemeyer


Much of our understanding of human thinking is based on probabilistic models. This innovative book by Jerome R. Busemeyer and Peter D. Bruza argues that, actually, the underlying mathematical structures from quantum theory provide a much better account of human thinking than traditional models. They introduce the foundations for modelling probabilistic-dynamic systems using two aspects of quantum theory. The first, ‘contextuality’, is a way to understand interference effects found with inferences and decisions under conditions of uncertainty. The second, ‘quantum entanglement’, allows cognitive phenomena to be modeled in non-reductionist ways. Employing these principles drawn from quantum theory allows us to view human cognition and decision in a totally new light. Introducing the basic principles in an easy-to-follow way, this book does not assume a physics background or a quantum brain and comes complete with a tutorial and fully worked-out applications in important areas of cognition and decision.

User’s Reviews

Editorial Reviews: Review “This is the first book putting forward the main scientific results of an intriguing and promising new research domain called ‘quantum cognition.’ In this emergent field, the mathematical structure of quantum theory is employed to model essential aspects of human cognition impossible to be modeled properly within classical approaches. The authors are both engaged intensively in quantum cognition and wrote a high-quality and well-understandable treatise showing how this new approach carries the potential of a real breakthrough, with deep implications for how cognition will be looked upon in the decades to come. The approach may also signify a thorough new opening to the old problem of artificial intelligence and the structuring of semantics.” –Diederik Aerts, Center Leo Apostel for Interdisciplinary Studies, Brussels Free University”This book is about why and how formal structures of quantum theory are essential for psychology – a breakthrough resolving long-standing problems and suggesting novel routes for future research, convincingly presented by two main experts in the field.” –Harald Atmanspacher, Department of Theory and Data Analysis, Institut fuer Grenzgebiete der Psychologie und Psychohygiene e.V.”Mathematical models of cognition so often seem like mere formal exercises. Quantum theory is a rare exception. Without sacrificing formal rigor, it captures deep insights about the workings of the mind with elegant simplicity. This book promises to revolutionize the way we think about thinking.” –Steven Sloman, Cognitive, Linguistic, and Psychological Sciences, Brown University”…The title grabs the reader’s attention…. The presentation is clear and self-contained, requiring no prior knowledge of quantum mechanics on the part of the reader. Every serious researcher in cognitive science needs to engage with this volume.” –Dr. H. Van Dyke Parunak, Computing Reviews”The book is intended for anyone who is interested in this topic, and does not presume any preliminary knowledge. It includes a detailed introduction to the corresponding quantum physics, along with a detailed description of the corresponding psychological experiments…. It is very thought-provoking, a must-read for anyone interested in understanding human behavior and human judgments…” –V. Ya. Kreinovich, Mathematical Reviews Book Description Introduces principles drawn from quantum theory to present a new framework for modeling human cognition and decision. About the Author Jerome R. Busemeyer is a Professor in the Department of Psychological and Brain Sciences at Indiana University, Bloomington. His research includes mathematical models of learning and decision making and he has formulated a dynamic theory of human decision making called decision field theory. Professor Busemeyer has published over 100 articles in cognitive and decision science journals including Psychological Review and was Chief Editor of the Journal of Mathematical Psychology from 2005 to 2010.Peter D. Bruza is a Professor in the Faculty of Science and Technology at Queensland University of Technology, Brisbane. His research intersects information retrieval, cognitive science and applied logic. He is a pioneer and co-instigator of the field of quantum interaction (QI) and serves on the steering committee of the quantum interaction symposia. Professor Bruza also serves on the editorial boards of Information Retrieval, the Journal of Applied Logic, The Logic Journal of the IGPL and the Information Science and Knowledge Management book series. Read more

Reviews from Amazon users which were colected at the time this book was published on the website:

⭐I found myself swept away by this sparkling, original book.I received the book last month but did not have time to read it until this holiday break. It’s so captivating that it has kept me up late these nights. Quantum theory itself definitely is exciting and I have enjoyed quite a few books on quantum theory. However, this book is exceptional and unique in several ways.First, it’s beautifully innovative and inspiring.On the one hand, most social and behavioral scientists and students, including myself, have learned classical probability theory somehow in our training. All our textbooks assume classical probability–and when we are busy with building theories and analyzing data, we even often forget that all our thinking and research are always founded on certain assumptions! Naturally, we took it for granted–even without noticing it–that the classical theory is the only perspective that we use to understand, theorize, and test our theories of our world and our behavior. This book challenges this tradition. As an earlier reviewer pointed out, the book convincingly explains why quantum theory is useful–and likely, a better tool–for understanding our cognition and decision.On the other hand, many students who are studying in the quantum theory courses in the physics or engineering departments seem to only care about solving problems and busy calculations. However, this book makes those mathematical rules full of life. I cannot agree more with Professor Steven Sloman (Brown University) who reviewed the book and said on the book jacket: “Mathematical models of cognition so often seem like mere formal exercises. Quantum theory is an exception. Without sacrificing formal rigor, it captures deep insights about the workings of the mind with elegant simplicity. This book promises to revolutionize the way we think about thinking.”The book is written by two of the most important leaders in the growing new research area of quantum cognition, which applies quantum mathematical rules to understand human mind and behavior using empirical research. So, it’s not surprising that:Second, it’s admirably comprehensive, rigorous, and clear.Another earlier reviewer has already commented on this. The book is an outstanding introduction to and review of all the rapidly growing quantum cognition research. Both authors are well respected in the field. Both have organized many workshops on the topic and produced some highly cited publications on this topic. The book is rigorous and lucid.Third, it is surprisingly intuitive, conversational, and accessible.Although I’ve already read another exceptional cognitive modeling book by Busemeyer–

⭐(and used it to teach my graduate students), I am still very impressed by the authors’ capability to write a serious, rigorous quantum and cognitive modeling book in such an accessible way. Quantum theory, as one of the most important scientific theory, has completely changed our life today–it’s said that about one third to half of our current world economy is directly based on this theory. Although presented everywhere in our everyday life, the theory itself is often mystified–sometimes by the popular media and even physicists. Indeed, some of the quantum theory books that I have read really confused and discouraged me. In contrast, the book by Busemeyer and Bruza presents the hard and deep content with intuitive examples. At the end of the reading, you probably would say: “Wow, in fact, it seems really intuitive and natural to try to think about and understand our behavior and cognition using quantum theory. How could it be otherwise? How could it be?”The book is very accessible. The book is smartly structured in the way that readers with various academic backgrounds and levels can enjoy it. It does not assume that readers have any background in physics. Many of the chapters, sections, and appendixes are completely self-contained. In addition, the authors, from time to time, remind the readers to read related chapter/section/appendix if the needed background is missing–or provide a “short cut” if the content is already familiar. It’s neat to see a book structured in such a nonlinear and interactive way. (Personally I still read the book mostly following its chapter order, which worked just perfect for me. It was like sitting next to the author and having a long, intellectually stimulating conversation with hands-on exercises.)Highly recommended if you are interested in quantum theory and applications, or if you are interested in understanding our mind and behavior. If you are already an expert in quantum theory, you will definitely find some new insights! If you are a new comer, take the leap and enjoy the amazing journey…

⭐This is a book, which on the first glance or even first read may not make sense though it manages to keep the novelty. Now when you read it second time, slowly, it just blows you off. I did not buy it for Cognitive concepts, but more from a AI/ML perspective. When you go through classical AI concepts like POMDP or Reinforcement Learning, you feel something is missing in the theory. This book with its concepts clears it all. This book just dives deep into the theory of Quantum Mechanics, the deepest depth and then you realize, that it’s probability theory in its most general form and then you see the applications everywhere. The math maybe hard, though I was having solid background in probability theory and linear algebra, but once past that you see a new world. This book opens your mind and possibly your professional life 🙂 Its a must read for everyone in AI/ML/Data Science etc., Simply amazing.

⭐Excellent book with a word of warning if you don`t have a background of math this book may be overwhelming. Personally I thought the book was very informitive.

⭐The book that is really relevant for my studies. It will be definitely useful for my students who are interested in cognitive science .

⭐While scientists have assumed that classical probability theory and logic was the best way to comprehend human cognition, research studies have found numerous aspects of cognition and decision to behave differently. The new field of Quantum Cognition presents us with new ways of thinking about cognition that better match observations of actual human behavior, and Quantum Models of Cognition and Decision presents an outstandingly clear and thorough overview of this exciting new field.Busemeyer and Bruza do an outstanding job of incorporating key concepts and ideas from quantum theory, showing how aspects of quantum phenomena and behavior can provide valuable insights into human cognitive processes. Thanks to their observation that some puzzling results in the field of psychology are similar to aspects of quantum mechanics, Busemeyer and Bruza demonstrate through utilization of mathematical models, how one of the larger contributions of a working theory of quantum cognition is the way it allows for people to experience ‘indefinite’ states, or superposition states. The authors argue that “the wave nature of an indefinite state captures the psychological experience of conflict, ambiguity, confusion, and uncertainty; the particle nature of a definite state captures the psychological experience of conflict resolution, decision, and certainty.”One of the greatest joys of reading Quantum Models of Cognition and Decision is the way numerous detailed examples are presented that show how well quantum theory and quantum probability theory provide clarity in some of the more intriguing areas of recent research in psychology. One such example is how the quantum approach agrees quite well with the constructionist view of belief, attitude, and intention proposed by social psychologists such as Schwarz, so there is a way to better understand how our beliefs, attitudes and intentions are not simply stored in memory as fixed, never-changing properties, but instead are constructed and re-constructed when needed.Many chapters of Quantum Models of Cognition and Decision begin with engaging examples to illustrate the concepts being described, which bring the ideas into the realm of daily experience where the subject of quantum cognition springs to life. Suddenly, we find ourselves nodding in agreement that of course, reality viewed from a quantum perspective can be described in something much more complex than a boolean exhaustive description–of course, reality is much better described in various incompatible ways, using descriptions that sometimes can’t be compared or combined. This complexity of the world shows up in many ways, such as where certain combinations and associations can be surprising. When people hear the combination of the words, “pet” and “human,” for example, they often come up with the association “slave”–which is really quite remarkable, since the concept of slave is not commonly associated with either the word “pet” or “human.”One of the most fascinating sections of Quantum Models of Cognition and Decision has to do with ‘dynamic consistency,’ or the resolution of complex decisions through planning for the future while considering complex sequences of potential events. The authors explain, “Optimal strategies for planning multistage decisions usually rely on backward induction processes that require planning from the last stage and working backwards to the current stage (von Winterfeldt & Edwards, 1986). This requires the current decision to be based on plans for future decisions.” This kind of decision-making is clearly ideal for quantum processing, since in quantum theory and quantum cognition, the future becomes a superposed state.Quantum Models is highly recommended for anyone interested in consciousness and quantum theory, and is highly accessible for readers of all levels of expertise in these areas, from beginners to experts. There is necessarily a good deal of math, balanced by wonderfully descriptive narratives–so readers can either pore through the mathematics or skip over it, and gain a great deal from this book either way. This book is highly recommended as being one of the very best books available that provides insights and clarity as to how quantum models of cognition can model changing, ephemeral, mixed qualities of human thought.

⭐Great book. Helps with getting grasp of quantum mechanics in a decision environment. Never thought of this perspective.Very educational.

⭐Not for the faint hearted, there is a lot of heavy maths in it that went over my head. However there is also a lot plain English that I did understand (along with the simpler maths) and I hence found the book quite rewarding.

⭐C’est la première synthèse d’un domaine en pleine expansion. Dans cet ouvrage, les auteurs (psychologues mathématiciens) montrent que les probabilités quantiques (et les propriétés géométriques de celles-ci) offrent un meilleur cadre pour la modélisation des données empiriques des (neuro)sciences cognitives et affectives, en particulier de la cognition et de la prise de décision.A.-S. El Ahmadi, PhD, MC, Psychologie mathématique, Université d’Aix-Marseille (France)


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